A Conserved Dopamine-Cholecystokinin Signaling Pathway Shapes Context–Dependent Caenorhabditis elegans Behavior
(A) Average body bend amplitude of wild type worms in presence (+) or absence (−) of bacterial food. Well-fed animals were transferred to assay plates with or without food and videotaped for 45 s following a recovery period of one minute. Bars represent the mean (±SEM) of values calculated from 15 animals. ***, p<0.0001 student's t-test. (B) Representative images of wild type and L-AChR(gf) animals. Note the exaggerated track amplitudes and the hypercontracted body posture of L-AChR(gf) animals. (C) Movement trajectories of wild type and L-AChR(gf) animals. Each black line shows the trajectory of one animal monitored for 45 s on food. In this and subsequent figures, tracks are aligned to a common center point (gray) for clarity. (D) Average body bend amplitude for wild type, L-AChR(gf) and L-AChR(wt) animals as indicated. Values for body bend amplitude were calculated from recordings of the tracks shown in C. Bars represent the mean (±SEM) of values calculated from at least 15 animals. ***, p<0.0001 by ANOVA and Sidak's post-hoc test. (E) Current responses to pressure application of levamisole (100 µM) recorded from body wall muscles of wild type and L-AChR(gf) animals. Holding potential was −60 mV. Black bars indicate the duration of levamisole application (200 ms). See Figure 6 for additional electrophysiological characterization of the L-AChR(gf) strain.