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Cancer Evolution Is Associated with Pervasive Positive Selection on Globally Expressed Genes

Figure 1

Increased proportion of functional substitutions in BrCa compared to the germline.

Depicted are dN/dS and dMF/dLF values calculated based on germline mutations segregating at a frequency of >0.1 (black), and dN/dS and dMF/dLF values calculated based on BrCa somatic substitutions (gray). The dashed line represents a dN/dS and dMF/dLF ratio of 1. We focus on germline substitutions occurring at a higher frequency of >0.1 in the human population, because rare germline substitutions are expected to be less affected by natural selection [51]. This is because rare polymorphisms have not yet had time to be strongly affected by selection and therefore still contain many deleterious substitutions that with time would be removed from the population. The full data regarding numbers of non-synonymous, and synonymous, MF and LF substitutions, and also regarding dN/dS and dMF/dLF of all germline substitutions (including those appearing at frequencies lower than 0.1) is presented in Table S1.

Figure 1