Developmental Link between Sex and Nutrition; doublesex Regulates Sex-Specific Mandible Growth via Juvenile Hormone Signaling in Stag Beetles
(A, E) Adult phenotypes of a dsxRNAi and control GFPRNAi individuals of both sexes. Scale bars indicate 10 mm. (B, F) The relationship between prothorax width (X-axis) and mandible length (Y-axis) for GFPRNAi individuals (closed circles) and dsxRNAi individuals (open circles) in females (pink) and males (blue). (C, G) Adult tibial phenotypes of dsxRNAi individuals. Arrowheads indicate female-specific tibial spines. Foreleg tibia of GFPRNAi female which has several female-specific spines. The foreleg tibia of a dsxRNAi female; note that the number of female-specific spines decreased in comparison to the GFPRNAi female. The foreleg tibia of a dsxRNAi male in which female-specific spines are seen. The foreleg tibia of a GFPRNAi male that does not show female-specific spines. Scale bars indicate 2 mm. (D, H) Adult genital phenotypes of dsxRNAi individuals. Dorsal view of genitalia of GFPRNAi female, dsxRNAi female, dsxRNAi male and GFPRNAi male. Schematic views of the genital plates are indicated next to the photographs. Genital plates that are homologous in males and females are indicated in the same color. Scale bars indicate 2 mm.