Developmental Link between Sex and Nutrition; doublesex Regulates Sex-Specific Mandible Growth via Juvenile Hormone Signaling in Stag Beetles
(A) Intraspecific sexual dimorphism and male variation in Cyclommatus metallifer. Female (left), small male (center), and large male (right) are shown. Scale bar indicates 20 mm. (B) This species exhibits strong sexual dimorphism of mandibles between the sexes. Mandibles of female (left) and large male (right) are shown. This difference in size is a result of male-specific disproportionate mandibular growth. Scale bar indicates 10 mm. (C) Maxilla are not sexually dimorphic. Maxilla of female (left) and large male (right) are shown. Scale bar indicates 2 mm.