A Gene Family Derived from Transposable Elements during Early Angiosperm Evolution Has Reproductive Fitness Benefits in Arabidopsis thaliana
(A) Phenotypes of wild-type (Col-0), mug1 mug2, and mug7 mug8 based on the following traits: 1) Germination (%); 2) First leaves recorded as number of days after sterilization (DAS); 3) Flowering time (DAS); 4) Rosette leaf coloration; 5) Rosette diameter (cm) at 42 DAS; 6) Height (cm) of primary inflorescence at 42 DAS; 7) Average number of aborted seeds. Measurements based on 60 plants per genotype. Statistical significance based on two-sample student t-test; α = 0.05; * p<0.01; ** p<0.001. (B) Growth phenotype of Col-0, mug1 mug2, and mug7 mug8 at 40 DAS. Scale = 1 cm. (C) Image of an MS plate (0.8% agar w/v; 1% sucrose w/v) containing 17-day-old Col-0 and mug1 mug2 seedlings. (D) Chlorophyll accumulation in Col-0 and mug1 mug2 seedlings. Bars represents standard deviations of quadruple experiments. 200 mg or approximately 10 Col-0 or 30 mug1 mug2 seedlings per experiment. (E) Phenotypes of mug1 mug2 under sucrose conditions. Twelve-day-old seedlings of Col-0 and mug1 mug2 were grown on standard MS medium without sucrose or with 100 mM sucrose. (F) Close up of a dissected mug1 mug2 silique showing a normal funiculus from which the attached mature seed was released (green arrow) and a funiculus attached to undeveloped ovule tissues (red arrow).