Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Heavy Metal ATPase3 as the Primary Determinant of Natural Variation in Leaf Cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana
The A. thaliana Col-0 accession was transformed with CS28181 HMA3 and leaf Zn (A) and Co (B) concentration determined. Transgenic lines were made by introducing the CS28181 genomic DNA fragment of HMA3 (including promoter sequence) into the Col-0 accession. Data represents the mean leaf Zn and Co concentrations ± standard errors (n = 7–12 independent plants per genotype). Letters above bars indicate statistically significant groups using a one-way ANOVA with groupings by Tukey's HSD using a 95% confidence interval.