Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Heavy Metal ATPase3 as the Primary Determinant of Natural Variation in Leaf Cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana
A. Ten main HMA3 protein coding haplotypes. B. Leaf Cd concentration of A. thaliana accessions grouped by HMA3 protein coding haplotype. C. Predicted structural model of HMA3 with the position of the amino acid substitutions in (A) indicated in the model. H1–H8, transmembrane helixes. A-Domain = actuator domain; ATP-BD = ATP binding domain; Metal-BD = C-terminal metal binding domain. D. Leaf Cd concentration of F1 progenies of Duk×Col-0, Col-0×Van-0 and Col-0×Ler-0 and their parents in the same experiment. Data represents the means leaf Cd concentration ± standard errors (n = 5–19 in B, 12–20 in C). Letters right of the bars in (B) or above bars in (D) indicate statistically significant groups using one-way ANOVA with groupings by Tukey's HSD using a 95% confidence interval.