Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Heavy Metal ATPase3 as the Primary Determinant of Natural Variation in Leaf Cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana
A. Leaf Cd concentration in A. thaliana accession CS28181, Col-0 and their F1 progeny. Data represent the mean leaf Cd concentration ± standard errors (n = 7–12 independent plants per genotype). B. The frequency distribution of leaf Cd concentration in F2 progeny of a cross between CS28181 and Col-0. Arrows indicate leaf Cd concentration of the parent accessions. Letters above each bar in (A) indicate statistically significant groups using a one-way ANOVA with groupings by Tukey's HSD using a 95% confidence interval.