Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Heavy Metal ATPase3 as the Primary Determinant of Natural Variation in Leaf Cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana
A. The frequency distribution of leaf Cd concentration in 349 A. thaliana accessions grown in a common garden. Horizontal bars represent the standard deviations of five accessions grown in all experimental blocks. B. Genome-wide association mapping of leaf Cd at 213,497 SNPs across 337 A. thaliana accessions using a mixed model analysis implemented in EMMA . Horizontal dashed line indicates a genome-wide significance threshold of −log10 = 5. C. Detailed plot of the region shown in the red box in B.