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Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Heavy Metal ATPase3 as the Primary Determinant of Natural Variation in Leaf Cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana

Figure 1

Genome-wide association analysis of leaf Cd accumulation in a worldwide collection of A. thaliana accession grown in a common garden.

A. The frequency distribution of leaf Cd concentration in 349 A. thaliana accessions grown in a common garden. Horizontal bars represent the standard deviations of five accessions grown in all experimental blocks. B. Genome-wide association mapping of leaf Cd at 213,497 SNPs across 337 A. thaliana accessions using a mixed model analysis implemented in EMMA [33]. Horizontal dashed line indicates a genome-wide significance threshold of −log10 = 5. C. Detailed plot of the region shown in the red box in B.

Figure 1