A Single Origin for Nymphalid Butterfly Eyespots Followed by Widespread Loss of Associated Gene Expression
(A) Origin of eyespots inferred from 399 nymphalid and 29 outgroup species from phylogeny in . (B) Origin of expression in eyespot centers inferred from gene expression profiles of 23 species. Presence or absence of expression of genes in future eyespot centers indicated by black and white boxes, respectively, and grey boxes indicate species/gene combinations for which expression data are unavailable. Green bars indicate two independent origins of eyespot-associated Antp expression. In both (A) and (B), divergence times (in millions of years) are from , ; red bars on the phylogeny indicate the possible locations of the single origin of eyespots, while gold bars indicate possible locations for the single origin of gene expression for sal, Notch, Dll, and possibly en in the eyespot centers. Asterisks (*) indicate species for which expression data are from , .