A Quantitative Comparison of the Similarity between Genes and Geography in Worldwide Human Populations
(A) Geographic coordinates of 37 populations. (B) Procrustes-transformed PCA plot of genetic variation. The Procrustes analysis is based on the unprojected latitude-longitude coordinates and PC1-PC2 coordinates of 1378 individuals. PC1 and PC2 are indicated by dotted lines, crossing over the centroid of all individuals. Abbreviations are as follows: AL, Albania; AT, Austria; BA, Bosnia-Herzegovina; BE, Belgium; BG, Bulgaria; CH-F, Swiss-French; CH-G, Swiss-German; CH-I, Swiss-Italian; CY, Cyprus; CZ, Czech Republic; DE, Germany; DK, Denmark; ES, Spain; FI, Finland; FR, France; GB, United Kingdom; GR, Greece; HR, Croatia; HU, Hungary; IE, Ireland; IT, Italy; KS, Kosovo; LV, Latvia; MK, Macedonia; NL, Netherlands; NO, Norway; PL, Poland; PT, Portugal; RO, Romania; RU, Russia; Sct, Scotland; SE, Sweden; SI, Slovenia; TR, Turkey; UA, Ukraine; YG, Serbia and Montenegro. Population labels follow the color scheme of Novembre et al. . PC1 and PC2 account for 0.30% and 0.16% of the total variance, respectively. The Procrustes similarity is (). The rotation angle of the PCA map is .