Down-Regulation of Honey Bee IRS Gene Biases Behavior toward Food Rich in Protein
IRS mRNA levels in honey bee fat body, shown as log relative quantities (RQ). Controls were injected with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) toward a green florescent protein (GFP) encoding gene, while IRS RNA interference (RNAi) was triggered by injection of dsRNA toward the only IRS encoding gene in honey bees. (A) Validation of IRS knockdown in high and low pollen-hoarding strain bees. Genotype had an independent and significant effect on IRS expression [asterisk and brackets on top of (A)]. (B) Validation of IRS knockdown in wild type. Asterisks indicate significance, p<0.05. Bars are means ± s.e. Sample sizes are given inside bars. (A) versus (B) were quantified with different calibrator samples; Y-axes cannot be directly compared.