About the Authors

Louis-Marie Bobay

louis-marie.bobay@pasteur.fr

Affiliations Microbial Evolutionary Genomics, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, CNRS, UMR3525, Paris, France, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Cellule Pasteur UPMC, Paris, France

Marie Touchon

Affiliations Microbial Evolutionary Genomics, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, CNRS, UMR3525, Paris, France

Eduardo P. C. Rocha

Affiliations Microbial Evolutionary Genomics, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, CNRS, UMR3525, Paris, France

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LMB MT EPCR. Performed the experiments: LMB. Analyzed the data: LMB MT EPCR. Wrote the paper: LMB MT EPCR.