About the Authors

Yun Deng

Contributed equally to this work with: Yun Deng, Jian Zhao

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Jian Zhao

Contributed equally to this work with: Yun Deng, Jian Zhao

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Daisuke Sakurai

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Kenneth M. Kaufman

Affiliations Division of Rheumatology and The Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America

Jeffrey C. Edberg

Affiliation Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

Robert P. Kimberly

Affiliation Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

Diane L. Kamen

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

Gary S. Gilkeson

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

Chaim O. Jacob

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

R. Hal Scofield

Affiliations Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America

Carl D. Langefeld

Affiliation Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Wake Forest, North Carolina, United States of America

Jennifer A. Kelly

Affiliation Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America

Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Michelle A. Petri

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

John D. Reveille

Affiliation Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Luis M. Vilá

Affiliation Department of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico

Graciela S. Alarcón

Affiliation Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

Timothy J. Vyse

Affiliation Divisions of Genetics and Molecular Medicine and Immunology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Bernardo A. Pons-Estel

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Sanatorio Parque, Rosario, Argentina

on behalf of the Argentine Collaborative Group

Memberships of the consortia are provided in the Acknowledgments.

Barry I. Freedman

Affiliation Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

Patrick M. Gaffney

Affiliation Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America

Kathy Moser Sivils

Affiliation Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America

Judith A. James

Affiliations Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America

Peter K. Gregersen

Affiliation Robert S. Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System, Manhasset, New York, United States of America

Juan-Manuel Anaya

Affiliation Center for Autoimmune Diseases Research, Universidad del Rosario, Bogota, Colombia

Timothy B. Niewold

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology and Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Joan T. Merrill

Affiliation Clinical Pharmacology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America

Lindsey A. Criswell

Affiliation Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Anne M. Stevens

Affiliations Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Center for Immunity and Immunotherapies, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Susan A. Boackle

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America

Rita M. Cantor

Affiliation Department of Human Genetics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Weiling Chen

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Jeniffer M. Grossman

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Bevra H. Hahn

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

John B. Harley

Affiliations Division of Rheumatology and The Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America

Marta E. Alarcόn-Riquelme

Affiliations Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America, Centro de Genómica e Investigación Oncológica (GENYO), Pfizer–Universidad de Granada–Junta de Andalucia, Granada, Spain

on behalf of the BIOLUPUS and GENLES networks

Memberships of the consortia are provided in the Acknowledgments.

Elizabeth E. Brown

Affiliations Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

Betty P. Tsao

btsao@mednet.ucla.edu

Affiliation Division of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BPT YD JZ. Performed the experiments: YD JZ WC. Analyzed the data: YD JZ DS KMK CDL JAK RMC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BPT JCE RPK DLK GSG COJ RHS RR-G MAP JDR LMV GSA TJV BAP-E BIF PMG KMS JAJ PKG J-MA TBN JTM LAC AMS SAB JMG BHH JBH MEA-R EEB. Wrote the paper: YD. Revised the manuscript: JZ BPT JTM AMS SAB EEB.