About the Authors

Stefan Nickels

Affiliation Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Thérèse Truong

Affiliation Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

Rebecca Hein

Affiliation PMV Research Group at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany

Kristen Stevens

Affiliation Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Katharina Buck

Affiliation Department of Preventive Oncology, National Center of Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg, Germany

Sabine Behrens

Affiliation Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Ursula Eilber

Affiliation Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Martina Schmidt

Affiliation Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Lothar Häberle

Affiliation Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

Alina Vrieling

Affiliations Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Mia Gaudet

Affiliation Epidemiology Research Program, Division of Cancer Epidemiology, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Jonine Figueroa

Affiliation Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Nils Schoof

Affiliation Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Amanda B. Spurdle

Affiliation Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia

Anja Rudolph

Affiliation Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Peter A. Fasching

Affiliations Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

John L. Hopper

Affiliation Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Enes Makalic

Affiliation Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Daniel F. Schmidt

Affiliation Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Melissa C. Southey

Affiliation Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Matthias W. Beckmann

Affiliation Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

Arif B. Ekici

Affiliation Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

Olivia Fletcher

Affiliation Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom

Lorna Gibson

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Isabel dos Santos Silva

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Julian Peto

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Manjeet K. Humphreys

Affiliation Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Jean Wang

Affiliation Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Emilie Cordina-Duverger

Affiliation Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

Florence Menegaux

Affiliation Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

Børge G. Nordestgaard

Affiliation Copenhagen General Population Study and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Stig E. Bojesen

Affiliation Copenhagen General Population Study and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Charlotte Lanng

Affiliation Department of Breast Surgery, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Hoda Anton-Culver

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America

Argyrios Ziogas

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America

Leslie Bernstein

Affiliation Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California, United States of America

Christina A. Clarke

Affiliations Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

Hermann Brenner

Affiliation Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Heiko Müller

Affiliation Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Volker Arndt

Affiliation Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Christa Stegmaier

Affiliation Saarland Cancer Registry, Saarbrücken, Germany

Hiltrud Brauch

Affiliations Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Thomas Brüning

Affiliation Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany

Volker Harth

Affiliations Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center and Saarland University Faculty of Medicine, Homburg, Germany, Institute for Occupational Medicine and Maritime Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

The GENICA Network

Affiliations Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany, Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center and Saarland University Faculty of Medicine, Homburg, Germany, Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn, Germany, Institute of Pathology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Arto Mannermaa

Affiliations School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

Vesa Kataja

Affiliations Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

Veli-Matti Kosma

Affiliations School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

Jaana M. Hartikainen

Affiliations School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

kConFab

Affiliation The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation for Resesarch into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab), Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Australia

AOCS Management Group

Affiliations Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia, The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation for Resesarch into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab), Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Australia

Diether Lambrechts

Affiliation Vesalius Research Center (VRC), VIB, Leuven, Belgium

Dominiek Smeets

Affiliation Vesalius Research Center (VRC), VIB, Leuven, Belgium

Patrick Neven

Affiliation Multidisciplinary Breast Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium

Robert Paridaens

Affiliation Multidisciplinary Breast Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium

Dieter Flesch-Janys

Affiliation Department of Cancer Epidemiology/Clinical Cancer Registry and Institute for Medical Biometrics and Epidemiology, University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

Nadia Obi

Affiliation Department of Cancer Epidemiology/Clinical Cancer Registry and Institute for Medical Biometrics and Epidemiology, University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

Shan Wang-Gohrke

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany

Fergus J. Couch

Affiliation Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Janet E. Olson

Affiliation Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Celine M. Vachon

Affiliation Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Graham G. Giles

Affiliations Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia

Gianluca Severi

Affiliations Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia

Laura Baglietto

Affiliations Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia

Kenneth Offit

Affiliation Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Esther M. John

Affiliations Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

Alexander Miron

Affiliation Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Irene L. Andrulis

Affiliations Ontario Cancer Genetics Network, Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Julia A. Knight

Affiliations Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Gord Glendon

Affiliation Ontario Cancer Genetics Network, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada

Anna Marie Mulligan

Affiliations Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Stephen J. Chanock

Affiliation Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Jolanta Lissowska

Affiliation Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland

Jianjun Liu

Affiliation Human Genetics, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Angela Cox

Affiliation Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Helen Cramp

Affiliation Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Dan Connley

Affiliation Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Sabapathy Balasubramanian

Affiliation Academic Unit of Surgical Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Alison M. Dunning

Affiliation Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Mitul Shah

Affiliation Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Amy Trentham-Dietz

Affiliation University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Polly Newcomb

Affiliations University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Linda Titus

Affiliation Department of Community and Family Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America

Kathleen Egan

Affiliation Division of Population Sciences, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

Elizabeth K. Cahoon

Affiliation Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Preetha Rajaraman

Affiliation Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Alice J. Sigurdson

Affiliation Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Michele M. Doody

Affiliation Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Pascal Guénel

Affiliation Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

Paul D. P. Pharoah

Affiliation Department of Oncology and Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Marjanka K. Schmidt

Affiliation Division of Molecular Pathology and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Per Hall

Affiliation Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Doug F. Easton

Affiliation Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Montserrat Garcia-Closas

Affiliations Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America, Sections of Epidemiology and Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research and Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, London, United Kingdom

Roger L. Milne

Affiliation Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Human Cancer Genetics Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain

Jenny Chang-Claude

j.chang-claude@dkfz.de

Affiliation Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: P Guénel, PDP Pharoah, MK Schmidt, P Hall, DF Easton, M Garcia-Closas, RL Milne, J Chang-Claude. Performed the experiments: AM Dunning. Analyzed the data: S Nickels, T Truong, R Hein, K Stevens, K Buck, S Behrens, U Eilber, M Schmidt, L Häberle, A Vrieling, M Gaudet, J Figueroa, N Schoof, AB Spurdle, A Rudolph, PA Fasching, J Chang-Claude. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JL Hopper, E Makalic, DF Schmidt, MC Southey, MW Beckman, AB Ekici, O Fletcher, L Gibson, I dos Santo Silva, J Peto, MK Humphreys, J Wang, E Cordina-Duverger, F Menegaux, BG Nordestgaard, SE Bojeson, C Lanng, H Anton-Culver, A Ziogas, L Bernstein, CA Clarke, H Brenner, H Müller, V Arndt, C Stegmaier, H Brauch, T Brüning, V Harth, A Mannermaa, V Kataj, V-M Kosma, JM Hartikainen, D Lambrechts, D Smeets, P Neven, R Paridaens, D Flesch-Janys, N Obi, S Wang-Gohrke, FJ Couch, JE Olson, CM Vachon, GG Giles, G Severi, L Baglietto, K Offit, EM John, A Miron, IL Andrulis, JA Knight, G Glendon, AM Mulligan, SJ Chanock, J Lissowska, J Liu, A Cox, H Cramp, D Connley, S Balasubramanian, AM Dunning, M Shah, A Trentham-Dietz, P Newcomb, L Titus, K Egan, EK Cahoon, P Rajaraman, AJ Sigurdson, MM Doody, P Guénel, PDP Pharoah, MK Schmidt, P Hall, DF Easton, M Garcia-Closas, RL Milne, J Chang-Claude. Wrote the paper: S Nickels, T Truong, P Hall, DF Easton, M Garcia-Closas, RL Milne, J Chang-Claude.