About the Authors

Olivier Arnaiz, Nathalie Mathy, Céline Baudry, Cyril Denby Wilkes, Antoine Marmignon, Mireille Bétermier, Linda Sperling
CNRS UPR3404 Centre de Génétique Moléculaire, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Olivier Arnaiz, Nathalie Mathy, Céline Baudry, Cyril Denby Wilkes, Antoine Marmignon, Mireille Bétermier, Linda Sperling
Département de Biologie, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France

Olivier Arnaiz, Nathalie Mathy, Céline Baudry, Cyril Denby Wilkes, Antoine Marmignon, Mireille Bétermier, Linda Sperling
CNRS FRC3115, Centre de Recherches de Gif–sur-Yvette, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Sophie Malinsky, Olivier Garnier, Anne Le Mouël, Eric Meyer
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS, IBENS, Paris, France

Sophie Malinsky, Olivier Garnier, Anne Le Mouël, Eric Meyer
INSERM, U1024, Paris, France

Sophie Malinsky, Olivier Garnier, Anne Le Mouël, Eric Meyer
CNRS, UMR 8197, Paris, France

Jean-Marc Aury, Karine Labadie, Julie Poulain, Patrick Wincker
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Institut de Génomique (IG), Genoscope, Evry, France

Benjamin E. Lauderdale
Methodology Institute, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom

Mariusz Nowacki
Institute of Cell Biology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Malgorzata Prajer
Department of Experimental Zoology, Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland

Patrick Wincker
Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France

Patrick Wincker
Université d'Evry, Evry, France

Sandra Duharcourt
Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS, UMR 7592, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France

Laurent Duret
Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Villeurbanne, France

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MB LD SD EM SM LS. Performed the experiments: MB CB SD CDW NM SM AM MN OG ALM MP EM. Analyzed the data: OA CDW LD LS. Wrote the paper: OA MB LD SD BEL EM SM LS. Mathematical model: BEL. DNA sequencing: J-MA KL JP PW.