About the Authors

Frank W. Albert

falbert@princeton.edu

Affiliations Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America

Mehmet Somel

Affiliations Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, CAS–MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology SIBS, Shanghai, China

Miguel Carneiro

Affiliations CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Vairão, Portugal, Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia–Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

Ayinuer Aximu-Petri

Affiliation Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Michel Halbwax

Affiliations Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, Fernan Vaz Gorilla Project, Port-Gentil, Gabon

Olaf Thalmann

Affiliations Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Jose A. Blanco-Aguiar

Affiliations CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Vairão, Portugal, Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia–Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain

Irina Z. Plyusnina

† Deceased.

Affiliation Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

Lyudmila Trut

Affiliation Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

Rafael Villafuerte

Affiliation Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain

Nuno Ferrand

Affiliations CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Vairão, Portugal, Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia–Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

Sylvia Kaiser

Affiliation Department of Behavioural Biology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany

Per Jensen

Affiliation IFM Biology, Division of Zoology, Avian Behaviour Genomics and Physiology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

Svante Pääbo

Affiliation Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FWA SP. Performed the experiments: FWA AA-P MH. Analyzed the data: FWA MS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FWA MC OT JAB-A IZP LT RV NF SK PJ. Wrote the paper: FWA SP.