About the Authors

Niina Sandholm, Carol Forsblom, Ville-Petteri Mäkinen, Aila J. Ahola, Emma Fagerholm, Daniel Gordin, Valma Harjutsalo, Outi Heikkilä, Kustaa Hietala, Janne Kytö, Markku Lehto, Raija Lithovius, Maija Parkkonen, Milla Rosengård-Bärlund, Markku Saraheimo, Jenny Söderlund, Aino Soro-Paavonen, Anna Syreeni, Lena M. Thorn, Nina Tolonen, Johan Wadén, Per-Henrik Groop
Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Niina Sandholm, Carol Forsblom, Ville-Petteri Mäkinen, Aila J. Ahola, Emma Fagerholm, Daniel Gordin, Valma Harjutsalo, Outi Heikkilä, Markku Lehto, Raija Lithovius, Maija Parkkonen, Milla Rosengård-Bärlund, Markku Saraheimo, Jenny Söderlund, Aino Soro-Paavonen, Anna Syreeni, Lena M. Thorn, Nina Tolonen, Johan Wadén, Per-Henrik Groop
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

Niina Sandholm
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland

Rany M. Salem, Cameron Palmer, Candace Guiducci, Daniel B. Mirel, Andrew Taylor, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Jose C. Florez
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Rany M. Salem, Cameron Palmer, Joel N. Hirschhorn
Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Rany M. Salem, Winfred W. Williams, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Jose C. Florez
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Amy Jayne McKnight, Gareth J. McKay, Elizabeth J. Swan, David A. Savage, Alexander P. Maxwell
Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

Eoin P. Brennan, Denise M. Sadlier, Finian Martin, Catherine Godson
Diabetes Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Eoin P. Brennan, Denise M. Sadlier, Finian Martin, Catherine Godson
Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

Tamara Isakova
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Winfred W. Williams, Andrew Taylor, Jose C. Florez
Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Ville-Petteri Mäkinen
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Biocenter Oulu and Clinical Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Andrew P. Boright
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Emma Ahlqvist, Claes Ladenvall, Leif Groop
Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes, and Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

Harshal A. Deshmukh, Helen M. Colhoun
Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom

Benjamin J. Keller
Computer Science, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States of America

Huateng Huang
Division of Nephrology, Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Valma Harjutsalo, Jaakko Tuomilehto
Diabetes Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Bing He, Anne-May Österholm, Karl Tryggvason
Division of Matrix Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Kustaa Hietala, Janne Kytö
Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

Päivi Lahermo
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, Helsinki, Finland

Janne Pitkäniemi, Cinzia Sarti
Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Heikki Tikkanen
Unit for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland

Jaakko Tuomilehto
South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland

Jaakko Tuomilehto
Red RECAVA Grupo RD06/0014/0015, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain

Jaakko Tuomilehto
Centre for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, Krems, Austria

Geoffrey V. Gill
Diabetes Endocrine Unit, Clinical Sciences Centre, Aintree University Hospital, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Sarah Prior, Stephen C. Bain
Institute of Life Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

S. Mohsen Hosseini
Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

S. Mohsen Hosseini, Andrew D. Paterson
Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada

DCCT/EDIC Research Group
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

DCCT/EDIC Research Group
Biostatics Division, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

Hans-Henrik Parving
Department of Medical Endocrinology, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Hans-Henrik Parving, Peter Rossing, Lise Tarnow
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark

Peter Rossing, Lise Tarnow, Maria Lajer
Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark

François Alhenc-Gelas
INSERM U872, Paris-Descartes University, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France

Pierre Lefebvre
CHU Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium

Vincent Rigalleau
CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

Ronan Roussel, Michel Marre
AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat, Diabetology Endocrinology Nutrition, Paris, France

Ronan Roussel, Michel Marre
Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 738, Paris, France

Ronan Roussel
INSERM, UMR872, Equipe 2, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France

David-Alexandre Tregouet
INSERM UMR_S 937, ICAN Institute for Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France

Anna Maestroni, Silvia Maestroni, Gianpaolo Zerbini
Complications of Diabetes Unit, Division of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Sciences, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy

Henrik Falhammar, Tianwei Gu, Harvest F. Gu, Kerstin Brismar
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Henrik Falhammar, Kerstin Brismar
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

Anna Möllsten
Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Danut Cimponeriu, Monica Stavarachi
Genetics Department, Bucharest University, Bucharest, Romania

Mihai Ioana, Maria Mota, Eugen Mota
University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania

Cristian Serafinceanu, Nicolae Mircea Panduru
“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

Robert L. Hanson, Robert G. Nelson
Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, NIDDK, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America

Matthias Kretzler
Internal Medicine, Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Samy Hadjadj
CHU Poitiers–Endocrinology, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France

Samy Hadjadj
INSERM CIC0802, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers, France

Michel Marre
INSERM, U695 (Genetic Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Vascular Complications), Paris, France

Shelley B. Bull, Daryl Waggott
Prosserman Centre for Health Research, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Toronto, Canada

Shelley B. Bull, Andrew D. Paterson
Division of Biostatistics, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Per-Henrik Groop
Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia

Alexander P. Maxwell
Regional Nephrology Unit, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast, United Kingdom

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

JC Florez has received consulting honoraria from Novartis, Lilly, and Pfizer. M Kretzler received grant support from Hoffman La Roche and Fibrotech. P-H Groop has received lecture honorariums from Abbot, Boehringer Ingelheim, Cebix, Eli Lilly, Genzyme, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, MSD, and research grants from Eli Lilly and Roche. P-H Groop is also an advisory board member of Boehringer Ingelheim and Novartis.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AP Maxwell, JC Florez, JN Hirschhorn, P-H Groop, C Godson, F Martin, G Zerbini, M Marre, S Hadjadj, HF Gu, K Brismar, L Groop, NM Panduru, SC Bain, M Lajer, HM Colhoun, AD Paterson, D Waggott, SB Bull, M Kretzler. Performed the experiments: DA Savage, AJ McKnight, EJ Swan, C Guiducci, DB Mirel, A Taylor, C Godson, N Sandholm, M Parkkonen, J Söderlund, A Syreeni, P Lahermo, K Tryggvason, B He, A-M Österholm, AD Paterson, S Maestroni, S Hadjadj, M Marre, V Rigalleau, R Roussel, F Alhenc-Gelas, P Lefebvre, HF Gu, A Möllsten, T Gu, E Ahlqvist, M Ioana, M Stavarachi, D Cimponeriu, SM Hosseini, M Kretzler, RL Hanson. Analyzed the data: AJ McKnight, GJ McKay, EJ Swan, JC Florez, JN Hirschhorn, C Palmer, RM Salem, N Sandholm, C Forsblom, V-P Mäkinen, EP Brennan, F Martin, S Hadjadj, M Marre, V Rigalleau, R Roussel, F Alhenc-Gelas, P Lefebvre, D-A Tregouet, C Ladenvall, HA Deshmukh, AD Paterson, AP Boright, D Waggott, BJ Keller, H Huang, E Ahlqvist. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: S Prior, SB Bull, GV Gill, AJ McKnight, AP Maxwell, T Isakova, WW Williams, N Sandholm, C Forsblom, V Harjutsalo, AJ Ahola, E Fagerholm, D Gordin, O Heikkilä, K Hietala, J Kytö, M Lehto, V-P Mäkinen, M Rosengård-Bärlund, LM Thorn, N Tolonen, M Saraheimo, A Soro-Paavonen, J Wadén, H Tikkanen, J Tuomilehto, P Lahermo, P-H Groop, J Pitkäniemi, C Sarti, K Tryggvason, B He, A-M Österholm, AD Paterson, DM Sadlier, G Zerbini, A Maestroni, HF Gu, A Möllsten, H Falhammar, E Ahlqvist, M Mota, EM, SC Bain, GV Gill, S Prior, M Lehto, L Tarnow, P Rossing, H-H Parving, HM Colhoun, HA Deshmukh, M Kretzler, RG Nelson, RL Hanson, R Lithovius, K Brismar. Wrote the paper: N Sandholm, RM Salem, AJ McKnight, EP Brennan, C Forsblom, T Isakova, GJ McKay, WW Williams, DM Sadlier, F Martin, JN Hirschhorn, C Godson, JC Florez, P-H Groop, AP Maxwell.