About the Authors

Zari Dastani
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, Jewish General Hospital, Lady Davis Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Marie-France Hivert
Department of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada

Marie-France Hivert, Jonna Grimsby, James B. Meigs
General Medicine Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Nicholas Timpson, David M. Evans, George Davey Smith
MRC CAiTE Centre and School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

John R. B. Perry, Andrew P. Morris
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

John R. B. Perry, Andrew R. Wood, Timothy M. Frayling
Genetics of Complex Traits, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

Xin Yuan, Vincent E. Mooser, Dawn M. Waterworth
Genetics, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Robert A. Scott, Nicholas J. Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Ruth J. F. Loos
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Peter Henneman, Rune Frants, Ko Willems-vanDijk
Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Iris M. Heid, Thomas W. Winkler
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany

Jorge R. Kizer
Departments of Medicine and Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America

Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Terho Lehtimäki
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland

Christian Fuchsberger, Tanya M. Teslovich
Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Toshiko Tanaka, Luigi Ferrucci
Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Kerrin Small, Timothy D. Spector, J. Brent Richards
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Kerrin Small, Stavroula Kanoni, Panos Deloukas
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

Aaron Isaacs, Sara M. Willems, Cornelia van Duijn
Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Aaron Isaacs, Ben A. Oostra, Cornelia van Duijn
Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands

Marian Beekman, Ingrid Meulenbelt
Section of Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center and The Netherlands Genomics Initiative, The Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging, Leiden, The Netherlands

Stefan Coassin, Claudia Lamina, Margot Haun, Florian Kronenberg
Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria

Kurt Lohman, Yongmei Liu
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

Lu Qi, Frank B. Hu
Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

James S. Pankow
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

Hae-Won Uh, Stefan Böhringer
Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Ying Wu, Karen L. Mohlke
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Aurelian Bidulescu
Cardiovascular Research Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Laura J. Rasmussen-Torvik
Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Celia M. T. Greenwood
Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Martin Ladouceur
Department of Human Genetics McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Jonna Grimsby, Jose C. Florez, James B. Meigs
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Alisa K. Manning, Ching-Ti Liu, Josee Dupuis
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jaspal Kooner
Cardiology, Ealing Hospital National Health Service (NHS) Trust, London, United Kingdom

Peter Vollenweider
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Karen A. Kapur, Toby Johnson
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

John Chambers
Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Ben A. Oostra
Deptartment of Clinical Genetics and Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Bruce M. Psaty
Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Bruce M. Psaty
Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Russell P. Tracy
Departments of Pathology and Biochemistry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America

Jennifer Brody
Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Ida Chen
Medical Genetics Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Jorma Viikari
Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

Mika Kähönen
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland

Peter P. Pramstaller, Andrew A. Hicks
Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC) (Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany), Bolzano, Italy

Peter P. Pramstaller
Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy

Peter P. Pramstaller
Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

Beate St. Pourcain
School of Social and community medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Naveed Sattar
British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Stefania Bandinelli
Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (ASF), Florence, Italy

Olga D. Carlson, Josephine M. Egan
Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Diana van Heemst
Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Lyudmyla Kedenko, Bernhard Paulweber
First Department of Internal Medicine, St. Johann Spital, Paracelsus Private Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria

Kati Kristiansson, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Markus Perola
Public Health Genomics Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, and Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Britt-Marie Loo, Antti Jula
Population Studies Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland

Tamara Harris, Melissa Garcia
Intramural Research Program, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Alka Kanaya
Division of General Internal Medicine, Women's Health Clinical Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Norman Klopp, H.-Erich Wichmann
Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich, Germany

H.-Erich Wichmann
Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany

H.-Erich Wichmann
Klinikum Großhadern, Munich, Germany

Efi Katsareli, George V. Dedoussis
Harokopio University, Athens, Greece

David J. Couper
Collaborative Studies Coordinating Center, Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Bruce B. Duncan
School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Bruce B. Duncan
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Margreet Kloppenburg
Department of Rheumatology and Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden, The Netherlands

Linda S. Adair
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Judith B. Borja
Office of Population Studies Foundation, University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines

James G. Wilson
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America

Solomon Musani
Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America

Xiuqing Guo
Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Toby Johnson
University Institute of Social and Preventative Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Toby Johnson
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland

Robert Semple
Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Matthew A. Allison
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Susan Redline
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sarah G. Buxbaum
Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America

Christie M. Ballantyne
Baylor College of Medicine and Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America

P. Eline Slagboom
Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Olli Raitakari
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and the Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

Jose C. Florez
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jose C. Florez
Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jose C. Florez
Diabetes Research Center, Diabetes Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Veikko Salomaa
Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Johan G. Eriksson
Diabetes Prevention Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Johan G. Eriksson
Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

Johan G. Eriksson
Folkhalsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland

Johan G. Eriksson
Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, Finland

Johan G. Eriksson
Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

David S. Siscovick
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Josee Dupuis
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts, United States of America

J. Brent Richards
Departments of Medicine, Human Genetics, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Corresponding Author

brent.richards@mcgill.ca

Competing Interests

DM Waterworth, X Yuan, and VE Mooser are full-time employees of GlaxoSmithKline. P Vollenweider received grant money from GlaxoSmithKline to fund the CoLaus study. The other authors declare no competing financial interests.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: Z Dastani, JB Richards, DM Waterworth, VE Mooser, C van Duijn, A Isaacs, JB Meigs, JC Florez, M-F Hivert, F Kronenberg, IM Heid, PP Pramstaller, JR Kizer, DS Siscovick, BM Psaty, O Raitakari, T Lehtimäki, JG Eriksson, M Perola, V Salomaa, RJF Loos, NJ Wareham, T Harris, L Qi, FB Hu, I Meulenbelt, M Kloppenburg, CM Ballantyne, H-E Wichmann, B Paulweber, L Kendenko, JG Wilson, A Bidulescu, S Musani, SG Buxbaum, S Redline, MA Allison, KL Mohlke, AP Morris, K Small. Performed the experiments: L Ferrucci, JM Egan, OD Carlson, P Vollenweider, C Lamina, NJ Wareham, J Chambers, J Kooner, R Frants, K Willems-vanDijk, SM Willems, TM Frayling, S Böhringer, F Kronenberg, AA Hicks, BM Psaty, I Chen, RP Tracy, M Kähönen, J Viikari, K Kristiansson, M-L Nuotio, K Lohman, A Kanaya, PE Slagboom, M Beekman, D van Heemst, I Meulenbelt, M Kloppenburg, CM Ballantyne, N Klopp, S Coassin, E Katsareli, A Bidulescu, MA Allison, LJ Rasmussen-Torvik, X Guo, JB Borja, LS Adair, M Haun. Analyzed the data: Z Dastani, N Timpson, T Tanaka, KA Kapur, R Semple, X Yuan, P Henneman, A Isaacs, J Dupuis, J Grimsby, AK Manning, CT Liu, JRB Perry, AR Wood, F Kronenberg, IM Heid, TW Winkler, C Langenberg, C Fuchsberger, J Brody, L-P Lyytikäinen, RA Scott, Y Liu, M Garcia, L Qi, FB Hu, M Beekman, I Meulenbelt, H-W Uh, JS Pankow, S Kanoni, A Bidulescu, SG Buxbaum, Y Wu, AP Morris, K Small, TM Teslovich, BA Oostra, AR Wood. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DM Evans, B St. Pourcain, N Sattar, CMT Greenwood, TD Spector, M Ladouceur, CV Dedoussis, JB Meigs, F Kronenberg, IM Heid, TW Winkler, C Langenberg, AA Hicks, PP Pramstaller, BM Psaty, I Chen, RP Tracy, A Jula, B-M Loo, PE Slagboom, S Bandinelli, I Meulenbelt, H-W Uh, M Kloppenburg, DJ Couper, H-E Wichmann, B Paulweber, GV Dedoussis, P Deloukas, S Redline, T Johnson, BA Oostra, GD Smith. Wrote the paper: Z Dastani, JB Richards, CMT Greenwood, N Timpson, DM Waterworth, VE Mooser, CV Dedoussis, A Isaacs, JB Meigs, JC Florez, J Dupuis, JRB Perry, M-F Hivert, F Kronenberg, IM Heid, T Lehtimäki, M Perola, RA Scott, C Langenberg, RJF Loos, T Harris, DJ Couper, CM Ballantyne, BB Duncan, H-E Wichmann, KL Mohlke, AP Morris, K Small, R Semple. Undertook meta-analysis: Z Dastani, J Dupuis. Did multi-ethnic analysis: AP Morris. Did expression analysis: K Small. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: Z Dastani.