About the Authors

Cristian Pattaro, Daniel Taliun, Cosetta Minelli, Peter P. Pramstaller
Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC) and Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Bolzano, Italy

Anna Köttgen, Adrienne Tin, Man Li, Josef Coresh, W. H. Linda Kao
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Anna Köttgen, Claudia Hundertmark
Renal Division, Freiburg University Clinic, Freiburg, Germany

Alexander Teumer, Florian Ernst, Georg Homuth, Uwe Völker
Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Maija Garnaas
Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Carsten A. Böger
Department of Internal Medicine II, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

Christian Fuchsberger
Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Matthias Olden
Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

Matthias Olden
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany

Ming-Huei Chen
Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Ming-Huei Chen, Qiong Yang, Ching-Ti Liu
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Xiaoyi Gao, Mary Feitosa, Michael Province, Shamika Ketkar, Ingrid Borecki
Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Mathias Gorski, Iris M. Heid
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

Mathias Gorski, Angela Döring, H.-Erich Wichmann, Iris M. Heid
Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Meredith C. Foster, Conall M. O'Seaghdha, Andrew D. Johnson, Shih-Jen Hwang, Caroline S. Fox
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study and the Center for Population Studies, Framingham, Massachusetts, United States of America

Conall M. O'Seaghdha
Division of Nephrology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Nicole Glazer
Section of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Aaron Isaacs, Ayse Demirkan, Ben A. Oostra, Cornelia M. van Duijn
Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Aaron Isaacs
Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands

Albert V. Smith, Thor Aspelund, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason
Icelandic Heart Association, Research Institute, Kopavogur, Iceland

Albert V. Smith, Thor Aspelund, Vilmundur Gudnason
University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

Jeffrey R. O'Connell, Braxton D. Mitchell, Alan R. Shuldiner
Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Maksim Struchalin
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Toshiko Tanaka, Luigi Ferrucci
Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Guo Li, David S. Siscovick
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Hinco J. Gierman, Stuart K. Kim
Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Mariza de Andrade
Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Kurt Lohman, Yongmei Liu
Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

Marilyn C. Cornelis, Frank B. Hu
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Åsa Johansson, Wilmar Igl, Ghazal Zaboli, Ulf Gyllensten
Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Anke Tönjes, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll
Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Anke Tönjes, Michael Stumvoll
IFB Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Abbas Dehghan, Albert Hofman, Yurii S. Aulchenko, Jacqueline C. M. Witteman
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Vincent Chouraki
Inserm UMR744, Institut Pasteur, Lille, France

Elizabeth G. Holliday
Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia

Elizabeth G. Holliday
Centre for Information-based Medicine, Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, Australia

Rossella Sorice, Daniela Ruggiero, Marina Ciullo
Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “Adriano-Buzzati Traverso”–CNR, Napoli, Italy

Zoltan Kutalik
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Zoltan Kutalik, Sven Bergmann
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland

Terho Lehtimäki
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Centre for Laboratory Medicine Tampere Finn-Medi 2, Tampere, Finland

Tõnu Esko, Reedik Mägi, Andres Metspalu
Estonian Genome Center of University of Tartu (EGCUT), Tartu, Estonia

Tõnu Esko, Tiit Nikopensius, Andres Metspalu
Estonian Biocenter and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Harshal Deshmukh, Helen Colhoun
Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Medicine, Clinical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

Sheila Ulivi
Institute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste, Italy

Audrey Y. Chu, Franco Giulianini, Paul Ridker, Daniel I. Chasman
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Federico Murgia, Laura Portas, Mario Pirastu
Institute of Population Genetics – CNR, Sassari, Italy

Stella Trompet, J. Wouter Jukema
Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Medea Imboden, Martin Adam, Gian-Andri Thun, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch
Unit of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Barbara Kollerits, Margot Haun, Florian Kronenberg
Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria

Giorgio Pistis, Cinzia Sala, Daniela Toniolo
Division of Genetics and Cell Biology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy

Tamara B. Harris, Lenore J. Launer
Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, NIA, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Eric Boerwinkle
Human Genetics Center, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Helena Schmidt
Austrian Stroke Prevention Study, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry and Department of Neurology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria

Margherita Cavalieri, Reinhold Schmidt
Austrian Stroke Prevention Study, University Clinic of Neurology, Department of Special Neurology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria

Madhumathi Rao
Division of Nephrology/Tufts Evidence Practice Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Stephen T. Turner
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Jingzhong Ding
Department of Internal Medicine/Geriatrics, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

Jeanette S. Andrews
Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

Barry I. Freedman
Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

Wolfgang Koenig
Abteilung Innere II, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Ulm, Germany

Thomas Illig, Angela Döring
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

H.-Erich Wichmann
Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany

H.-Erich Wichmann
Klinikum Grosshadern, Neuherberg, Germany

Ivana Kolcic, Tatijana Zemunik, Mladen Boban
Croatian Centre for Global Health, University of Split Medical School, Split, Croatia

Heather E. Wheeler, Stuart K. Kim
Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Heather E. Wheeler
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Sarah H. Wild, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, James F. Wilson
Center for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Alan F. Wright, Nick Hastie, Veronique Vitart, Caroline Hayward
MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

David Ellinghaus, Ute Nöthlings, Gunnar Jacobs, Andre Franke
Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany

Ute Nöthlings, Gunnar Jacobs
popgen Biobank, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany

Reiner Biffar
Clinic for Prosthodontic Dentistry, Gerostomatology, and Material Science, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Karlhans Endlich
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Heyo K. Kroemer
Institute of Pharmacology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Matthias Nauck
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Sylvia Stracke
Clinic for Internal Medicine A, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Henry Völzke
Institute for Community Medicine, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Reedik Mägi, Inga Prokopenko
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Andre G. Uitterlinden, Fernando Rivadeneira
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Ozren Polasek
Croatian Centre for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia

Catherine Helmer
INSERM U897, Université Victor Ségalen Bordeaux 2, ISPED, Bordeaux, France

Catherine Helmer
Université Bordeaux 2 Victor Segalen, Bordeaux, France

Jie Jin Wang, Paul Mitchell
Centre for Vision Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Jie Jin Wang
Centre for Eye Research Australia (CERA), University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Mika Kähönen
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland

Jorma Viikari
Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

Alex Doney
NHS Tayside, Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Medicine, Clinical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

Antonietta Robino, Paolo Gasparini
Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo,” University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy

Bernhard K. Krämer
University Medical Centre Mannheim, 5th Department of Medicine, Mannheim, Germany

Ian Ford
Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Brendan M. Buckley
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

Bernhard Paulweber
First Department of Internal Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria

Marie Metzger
Inserm UMRS 1018, CESP Team 10, Université Paris Sud, Villejuif, France

Peter Vollenweider
Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland

Olli Raitakari
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Colin Palmer
Biomedical Research Institute, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

J. Wouter Jukema
Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN), Utrecht, The Netherlands

J. Wouter Jukema
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden, The Netherlands

J. Wouter Jukema
Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Alan R. Shuldiner
Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Josef Coresh, W. H. Linda Kao
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Sharon L. R. Kardia
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Gary C. Curhan
Brigham and Women's Hospital and Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Rainer Rettig
Institute of Physiology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Paul Ridker, Daniel I. Chasman
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Afshin Parsa
Division of Nephrology, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Murielle Bochud
University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland

Wolfram Goessling
Divisions of Genetics and Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Wolfram Goessling
Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Caroline S. Fox
Division of Endocrinology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Study design: V Gudnason, TB Harris, LJ Launer, G Eiriksdottir, A Parsa, A Köttgen, WHL Kao, R Schmidt, L Ferrucci, DS Siscovick, BA Oostra, CM van Duijn, I Borecki, CS Fox, FB Hu, CA Böger, M Gorski, T Illig, A Döring, HE Wichmann, IM Heid, I Rudan, PP Pramstaller, GC Curhan, U Gyllensten, JF Wilson, SH Wild, AF Wright, H Campbell, A Hofman, AG Uitterlinden, JCM Witteman, R Biffar, K Endlich, R Rettig, S Stracke, H Völzke, P Kovacs, A Tönjes, O Polasek, N Hastie, C Hayward, V Vitart, DI Chasman, P Ridker, C Helmer, A Metspalu, JJ Wang, P Mitchell, M Province, X Gao, M Ciullo, P Vollenweider, M Pirastu, B Paulweber, D Toniolo, T Lehtimäki, O Raitakari, M Kähönen, J Viikari, P Gasparini, H Colhoun, A Doney, C Palmer, H Deshmukh, S Trompet, I Ford, BM Buckley, JW Jukema, NM Probst-Hensch. Study management: V Gudnason, TB Harris, LJ Launer, G Eiriksdottir, A Parsa, WHL Kao, R Schmidt, H Schmidt, M Cavalieri, L Ferrucci, DS Siscovick, A Isaacs, BA Oostra, CM van Duijn, I Borecki, CS Fox, J Ding, Y Liu, MC Cornelis, FB Hu, W Koenig, T Illig, A Döring, HE Wichmann, I Rudan, I Kolcic, T Zemunik, M Boban, C Pattaro, PP Pramstaller, GC Curhan, A Johansson, G Zaboli, U Gyllensten, JF Wilson, SH Wild, U Nöthlings, A Hofman, AG Uitterlinden, JCM Witteman, R Biffar, K Endlich, R Rettig, U Völker, H Völkze, M Stumvoll, A Tönjes, O Polasek, N Hastie, C Hayward, V Vitart, DI Chasman, P Ridker, C Helmer, A Metspalu, JJ Wang, P Mitchell, M Province, X Gao, M Ciullo, M Bochud, P Vollenweider, M Pirastu, B Kollerits, M Haun, B Paulweber, F Kronenberg, D Toniolo, T Lehtimäki, O Raitakari, M Kähönen, J Viikari, P Gasparini, F Giulianini, H Colhoun, A Doney, C Palmer, H Deshmukh, S Trompet, I Ford, BM Buckley, JW Jukema, BK Krämer, NM Probst-Hensch, M Imboden. Subject recruitment: G Eiriksdottir, AR Shuldiner, BD Mitchell, J Coresh, R Schmidt, M Cavalieri, DS Siscovick, BA Oostra, CM van Duijn, TB Harris, T Illig, A Döring, HE Wichmann, I Rudan, I Kolcic, PP Pramstaller, A Johansson, JF Wilson, SH Wild, A Hofman, AG Uitterlinden, JCM Witteman, R Biffar, R Rettig, S Stracke, H Völkze, A Tönjes, O Polasek, C Helmer, P Mitchell, M Ciullo, P Vollenweider, M Pirastu, B Paulweber, D Toniolo, O Raitakari, M Kähönen, J Viikari, S Ulivi, A Robino, P Ridker, H Colhoun, A Doney, C Palmer, I Ford, BM Buckley, JW Jukema, NM Probst-Hensch. Genotyping: AR Shuldiner, BD Mitchell, E Boerwinkle, H Schmidt, A Isaacs, A Demirkan, BA Oostra, CM van Duijn, M de Andrade, EJ Atkinson, ST Turner, SLR Kardia, Y Liu, CA Böger, M Gorski, T Illig, HE Wichmann, IM Heid, JF Wilson, H Campbell, A Franke, AG Uitterlinden, F Rivadeneira, F Ernst, G Homuth, HK Kroemer, M Nauck, U Völker, M Stumvoll, O Polasek, C Hayward, DI Chasman, T Esko, M Haun, F Kronenberg, T Lehtimäki, F Giulianini, S Trompet, JW Jukema. Statistical methods and analysis: T Aspelund, AV Smith, A Parsa, JR O'Connell, A Köttgen, WHL Kao, A Tin, C Hundertmark, M Struchalin, T Tanaka, G Li, A Isaacs, A Demirkan, M Feitosa, CS Fox, MH Chen, MC Foster, SJ Hwang, Q Yang, K Lohman, JS Andrews, Y Liu, MC Cornelis, CA Böger, M Gorski, IM Heid, C Pattaro, D Taliun, C Fuchsberger, C Minelli, A Johansson, W Igl, D Ellinghaus, A Franke, A Dehghan, F Rivadeneira, YS Aulchenko, A Teumer, I Prokopenko, R Mägi, C Hayward, V Vitart, DI Chasman, T Esko, EG Holliday, X Gao, S Ketkar, D Ruggiero, R Sorice, Z Kutalik, S Bergmann, F Murgia, L Portas, B Kollerits, F Kronenberg, G Pistis, S Ulivi, A Robino, AY Chu, H Colhoun, A Doney, C Palmer, H Deshmukh, I Ford, NM Probst-Hensch, M Adam, GA Thun, M Olden, M Li, N Glazer, HJ Gierman, V Chouraki, HE Wheeler, G Jacobs, T Nikopensius, M Metzger. Bioinformatics: AV Smith, JR O'Connell, C Hundertmark, M Struchalin, G Li, MH Chen, Q Yang, K Lohman, JS Andrews, Y Liu, MC Cornelis, CA Böger, M Gorski, IM Heid, C Pattaro, D Taliun, C Fuchsberger, A Johansson, W Igl, D Ellinghaus, A Dehghan, F Rivadeneira, YS Aulchenko, HK Kroemer, A Teumer, I Prokopenko, R Mägi, DI Chasman, T Esko, D Ruggiero, R Sorice, S Bergmann, F Murgia, L Portas, G Pistis, C Sala, T Lehtimäki, O Raitakari, S Ulivi, F Giulianini, S Trompet, I Ford, M Imboden, C-T Liu, AD Johnson, SK Kim. Zebrafish studies: M Garnaas, W Goessling. Interpretation of results: V Gudnason, TB Harris, LJ Launer, AV Smith, A Parsa, A Köttgen, WHL Kao, A Tin, DS Siscovick, G Li, M Rao, A Isaacs, MH Chen, MC Foster, SJ Hwang, Q Yang, J Ding, K Lohman, Y Liu, CA Böger, M Gorski, IM Heid, I Rudan, T Zemunik, M Boban, C Pattaro, D Taliun, A Johansson, W Igl, G Zaboli, U Gyllensten, JF Wilson, SH Wild, R Biffar, K Endlich, HK Kroemer, M Nauck, R Rettig, S Stracke, A Teumer, U Völker, H Völkze, O Polasek, N Hastie, C Hayward, V Vitart, DI Chasman, BI Freedman, T Esko, A Metspalu, EG Holliday, I Borecki, M Province, X Gao, M Ciullo, M Bochud, B Kollerits, M Haun, B Paulweber, F Kronenberg, D Toniolo, G Pistis, C Sala, AY Chu, S Trompet, JW Jukema, M Garnaas, W Goessling, CS Fox. Wrote the manuscript: C Pattaro, A Köttgen, A Teumer, M Garnaas, CA Böger, C Fuchsberger, A Tin, CM O'Seaghdha, A Parsa, M Bochud, IM Heid, W Goessling, DI Chasman, WHL Kao, CS Fox.