About the Authors

Christina M. Lill, Johannes T. Roehr, Brit-Maren M. Schjeide, Leif M. Schjeide, Esther Meissner, Ute Zauft, Tian Liu, Marcel Schilling, Hans Lehrach, Lars Bertram
Neuropsychiatric Genetics Group, Department of Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany

Christina M. Lill, Sachin Bagade, Nicole C. Allen, Rudolph E. Tanzi, Lars Bertram
Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America

Christina M. Lill, Frauke Zipp
Department of Neurology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany

Christina M. Lill, Peter Young
Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Münster, Germany

Johannes T. Roehr, Marcel Schilling
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Free University, Berlin, Germany

Matthew B. McQueen
Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America

Fotini K. Kavvoura, John P. A. Ioannidis
Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece

Fotini K. Kavvoura
Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, United Kingdom

Fotini K. Kavvoura
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Tian Liu
Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany

Kari J. Anderson, Joanna M. Biernacka
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Gary Beecham, Eden R. Martin, William K. Scott, Jeffery Vance
John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Daniela Berg, Thomas Gasser, Manu Sharma
Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Daniela Berg, Thomas Gasser, Manu Sharma
DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tübingen, Germany

Alexis Brice
INSERM, UMR_S975, Paris, France

Alexis Brice
Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris, Centre de Recherche de l'Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, UMR-S975, Paris, France

Alexis Brice
CNRS, UMR 7225, Paris, France

Alexis Brice
AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, Paris, France

Anita L. DeStefano, Jeanne C. Latourelle, Richard H. Myers
Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Anita L. DeStefano
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Chuong B. Do, Nicholas Eriksson, Joyce Y. Tung
23andMe, Mountain View, California, United States of America

Stewart A. Factor
Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Matthew J. Farrer
Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Tatiana Foroud, Nathan Pankratz
Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

Taye Hamza, Erin M. Hill-Burns, Haydeh Payami
New York State Department of Health Wadsworth Center, Albany, New York, United States of America

John A. Hardy, Nick W. Wood
Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Peter Heutink
Department of Clinical Genetics, Section of Medical Genomics, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Christine Klein
Section of Clinical and Molecular Neurogenetics, Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

Demetrius M. Maraganore
Department of Neurology, NorthShore University Health System, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America

Maria Martinez
INSERM UMR 1043, CPTP, Toulouse, France

Maria Martinez
Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France

Michael A. Nalls, Andrew B. Singleton
Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Wataru Satake, Tatsushi Toda
Division of Neurology/Molecular Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan

Kari Stefansson
deCODE genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland

Nick W. Wood
UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Cyrus P. Zabetian
VA Puget Sound Health Care System and Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Muin J. Khoury
Office of Public Health Genomics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

John P. A. Ioannidis
Biomedical Research Institute, Foundation for Research and Technology–Hellas, Ioannina, Greece

John P. A. Ioannidis
Center for Genetic Epidemiology and Modeling and Tufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

John P. A. Ioannidis
Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine and Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

lbertram@molgen.mpg.de

Competing Interests

CB Do, N Eriksson, and JY Tung are employed by 23andMe and own stock options in the company. MJ Farrer and Mayo Foundation received royalties from H.Lundbeck A/S and Isis Pharmaceuticals. In addition, MJ Farrer has received an honorarium for a seminar at Genzyme. T Gasser has received consultancy fees from Cephalon and Merck-Serono, grants from Novartis, payments for lectures including service on speakers' bureaus from Boehringer Ingelheim, Merck-Serono, UCB, and Valean, and holds patents NGFN2 and KASPP. JA Hardy has received consulting fees or honoraria from Eisai and his institute has received consulting fees or honoraria from Merck-Serono. DM Maraganore has received extramural research funding support from the National Institutes of Health (2R01 ES10751), the Michael J. Fox Foundation (Linked Efforts to Accelerate Parkinson Solutions Award, Edmond J. Safra Global Genetics Consortia Award), and from Alnylam Pharmaceuticals and Medtronic (observational studies of Parkinson's disease). DM Maraganore has also received intramural research funding support from the Mayo Clinic and from NorthShore University Health System. DM Maraganore filed a provisional patent for a method to predict Parkinson's disease. This provisional patent is unlicensed. He also filed a provisional patent for a method to treat neurodegenerative disorders. That provisional patent has been licensed to Alnylam Pharmaceuticals and DM Maraganore has received royalty payments in total of less than $20,000. K Stefansson has received grants from deCODE.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CM Lill, MB McQueen, JPA Ioannidis, L Bertram. Performed the experiments: CM Lill, JT Roehr, S Bagade, B-M Schjeide, E Meissner, U Zauft, NC Allen, KJ Anderson, G Beecham, D Berg, JM Biernacka, A Brice, AL DeStefano, CB Do, N Eriksson, SA Factor, MJ Farrer, T Foroud, T Gasser, T Hamza, JA Hardy, P Heutink, C Klein, JC Latourelle, DM Maraganore, ER Martin, M Martinez, RH Myers, H Payami, WK Scott, M Sharma, AB Singleton, K Stefansson, T Toda, JY Tung, J Vance, NW Wood, CP Zabetian, 23andMe, GEO-PD, IPDGC, Parkinson's Disease GWAS, WTCC2. Analyzed the data: CM Lill, JT Roehr, MB McQueen, FK Kavvoura, L Bertram. Wrote the paper: CM Lill, JPA Ioannidis, L Bertram. Helped write the manuscript: E Meissner, MJ Farrer, T Foroud, T Gasser, C Klein, DM Maraganore, H Payami, AB Singleton, M Sharma, F Zipp, H Lehrach. Helped analyze the data: S Bagade, T Liu, M Schilling, CB Do, N Eriksson, T Hamza, EM Hill-Burns, MA Nalls, N Pankratz, W Satake, M Sharma. Interpretation of results: CM Lill, JPA Ioannidis, L Bertram. Study coordination: CM Lill, T Foroud, JA Hardy, H Payami, AB Singleton, P Young, RE Tanzi, MJ Khoury, F Zipp, H Lehrach, JPA Ioannidis, L Bertram. Literature searches and data entry: CM Lill, S Bagade, B-M Schjeide, E Meissner, U Zauft, N Allen.