About the Authors

Michael Z. Ludwig

Contributed equally to this work with: Michael Z. Ludwig, Manu

martinkreitman@gmail.com (MK); mludwig@uchicago.edu (MZL)

Affiliations Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Manu

Contributed equally to this work with: Michael Z. Ludwig, Manu

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Ralf Kittler

Current address: Eugene McDermott Center For Growth and Development, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

Affiliations Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Kevin P. White

Affiliations Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Martin Kreitman

martinkreitman@gmail.com (MK); mludwig@uchicago.edu (MZL)

Affiliations Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MZL MK M. Performed the experiments: MZL M. Analyzed the data: MZL M MK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RK KPW MZL. Wrote the paper: MZL M MK.