About the Authors

Sean Michael Carroll

Affiliation Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Eric A. Ortlund

joet@uoregon.edu (JWT); eric.ortlund@emory.edu (EO) (Correspondence related to X-ray crystallography)

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Joseph W. Thornton

joet@uoregon.edu (JWT); eric.ortlund@emory.edu (EO) (Correspondence related to X-ray crystallography)

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SMC EAO JWT. Performed the experiments: SMC EAO JWT. Analyzed the data: SMC EAO JWT. Wrote the paper: SMC EAO JWT.