About the Authors

Lihong Zhao

Affiliations The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States of America, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America

Stefka D. Spassieva

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

Thomas J. Jucius

Affiliations The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States of America, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America

Leonard D. Shultz

Affiliation The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States of America

H. Elizabeth Shick

Current address: Department of Neurological Surgery, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Neuroscience, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

Wendy B. Macklin

Current address: Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Neuroscience, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

Yusuf A. Hannun

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

Lina M. Obeid

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

Susan L. Ackerman

susan.ackerman@jax.org

Affiliations The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States of America, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LZ SDS SLA. Performed the experiments: LZ SDS TJJ. Analyzed the data: LZ SDS SLA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LDS HES WBM. Wrote the paper: LZ SDS SLA. Oversaw experiments: YAH LMO SLA.