About the Authors

Grace X. Y. Zheng

Contributed equally to this work with: Grace X. Y. Zheng, Arvind Ravi

Address Current address: Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

Affiliations MIT Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Computational and Systems Biology Graduate Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Arvind Ravi

Contributed equally to this work with: Grace X. Y. Zheng, Arvind Ravi

Affiliations MIT Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology Program, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

J. Mauro Calabrese

Address Current address: Department of Genetics and the Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Affiliations MIT Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Lea A. Medeiros

Affiliations Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Oktay Kirak

Affiliation Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Lucas M. Dennis

Address Current address: NanoString Technologies, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Rudolf Jaenisch

Affiliations Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Christopher B. Burge

Affiliations Computational and Systems Biology Graduate Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Phillip A. Sharp

sharppa@mit.edu

Affiliations MIT Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GXYZ AR. Performed the experiments: GXYZ AR JMC. Analyzed the data: GXYZ AR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LAM OK LMD RJ CBB. Wrote the paper: GXYZ AR PAS.