About the Authors

Garret Suen

gsuen@wisc.edu (GS); currie@bact.wisc.edu (CRC)

Affiliations Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Clotilde Teiling

Contributed equally to this work with: Clotilde Teiling, Lewyn Li

Affiliation Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

Lewyn Li

Contributed equally to this work with: Clotilde Teiling, Lewyn Li

Affiliation 454 Life Sciences, Branford, Connecticut, United States of America

Carson Holt

Affiliation Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

Ehab Abouheif

Affiliation Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Erich Bornberg-Bauer

Affiliation Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, University of Münster, Münster, Germany

Pascal Bouffard

Address Current address: Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, New York, United States of America

Affiliation 454 Life Sciences, Branford, Connecticut, United States of America

Eric J. Caldera

Affiliations Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Elizabeth Cash

Affiliation School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

Amy Cavanaugh

Affiliations Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Rock County, Janesville, Wisconsin, United States of America

Olgert Denas

Affiliation Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Eran Elhaik

Affiliation The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Marie-Julie Favé

Affiliation Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Jürgen Gadau

Affiliation School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

Joshua D. Gibson

Affiliation School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

Dan Graur

Affiliation Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Kirk J. Grubbs

Affiliations Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Darren E. Hagen

Affiliation Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

Timothy T. Harkins

Address Current address: Life Technologies Corporation, Carlsbad, California, United States of America

Affiliation Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

Martin Helmkampf

Affiliation School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

Hao Hu

Affiliation Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

Brian R. Johnson

Affiliation Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America

Jay Kim

Affiliation Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Sarah E. Marsh

Affiliations Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Joseph A. Moeller

Affiliations Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Mónica C. Muñoz-Torres

Affiliation Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

Marguerite C. Murphy

Affiliation Department of Computer Science, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Meredith C. Naughton

Affiliation Department of Biology, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, United States of America

Surabhi Nigam

Affiliation Department of Computer Science, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Rick Overson

Affiliation School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

Rajendhran Rajakumar

Affiliation Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Justin T. Reese

Affiliation Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

Jarrod J. Scott

Affiliations Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Panama

Chris R. Smith

Affiliation Department of Biology, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, United States of America

Shu Tao

Affiliation Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

Neil D. Tsutsui

Affiliation Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America

Lumi Viljakainen

Affiliation Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

Lothar Wissler

Affiliation Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, University of Münster, Münster, Germany

Mark D. Yandell

Affiliation Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

Fabian Zimmer

Affiliation Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, University of Münster, Münster, Germany

James Taylor

Affiliations Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America, Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Steven C. Slater

Affiliations Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Sandra W. Clifton

Affiliation The Genome Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Wesley C. Warren

Affiliation The Genome Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Christine G. Elsik

Affiliation Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

Christopher D. Smith

Affiliation Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

George M. Weinstock

Affiliation The Genome Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Nicole M. Gerardo

Affiliation Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Cameron R. Currie

gsuen@wisc.edu (GS); currie@bact.wisc.edu (CRC)

Affiliations Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Panama

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GS LL CT TTH JT SCS SWC WCW CGE GMW NMG CRC. Performed the experiments: CT LL PB EJC SEM WCW. Analyzed the data: GS LL CH EA EBB EJC EC AC EE HH MJF JG JDG DG KJG DEH MH CH HH BRJ JK SEM JAM MCM MCMT MCN SN RO RR JTR CRS ST NDT LW MDY LV FZ CGE CDS NMG CRC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CT LL CH PB HH JJS MDY TTH SWC WCW CGE CDS GMW. Wrote the paper: GS. Project Management: GS CT TTH JT SCS SWC CGE GMW NMG CRC.