About the Authors

Emily J. Capra

Contributed equally to this work with: Emily J. Capra, Barrett S. Perchuk

Affiliation Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Barrett S. Perchuk

Contributed equally to this work with: Emily J. Capra, Barrett S. Perchuk

Affiliations Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Emma A. Lubin

Affiliation Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Orr Ashenberg

Affiliation Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jeffrey M. Skerker

Affiliations Department of Bioengineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States of America

Michael T. Laub

laub@mit.edu

Affiliations Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: EJC BSP EAL JMS MTL. Performed the experiments: EJC BSP EAL OA. Analyzed the data: EJC BSP EAL OA MTL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EJC BSP OA JMS. Wrote the paper: EJC MTL.