About the Authors

Roger S. Thorpe

Contributed equally to this work with: Roger S. Thorpe, Yann Surget-Groba

r.s.thorpe@bangor.ac.uk

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom

Yann Surget-Groba

Contributed equally to this work with: Roger S. Thorpe, Yann Surget-Groba

Address Current address: Université de Genève, Sciences III, Genève, Switzerland

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom

Helena Johansson

Address Current address: Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sweden

Affiliation School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RST. Performed the experiments: YSG HJ. Analyzed the data: RST YSG HJ. Wrote the paper: RST YSG. Contributed to field work and data analysis: RST. Carried out the field work, laboratory work and data analysis: YSG. Carried out all aspects of the work on the NE transects: HJ.