About the Authors

Demetris Pillas

Contributed equally to this work with: Demetris Pillas, Clive J. Hoggart, David M. Evans, Paul F. O'Reilly, Paul Elliott, Lachlan J. M. Coin, George Davey Smith, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Economic and Social Research Council International Centre for Life Course Studies in Society and Health, London, United Kingdom, Medical Research Council Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom

Clive J. Hoggart

Contributed equally to this work with: Demetris Pillas, Clive J. Hoggart, David M. Evans, Paul F. O'Reilly, Paul Elliott, Lachlan J. M. Coin, George Davey Smith, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

David M. Evans

Contributed equally to this work with: Demetris Pillas, Clive J. Hoggart, David M. Evans, Paul F. O'Reilly, Paul Elliott, Lachlan J. M. Coin, George Davey Smith, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Affiliation Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Paul F. O'Reilly

Contributed equally to this work with: Demetris Pillas, Clive J. Hoggart, David M. Evans, Paul F. O'Reilly, Paul Elliott, Lachlan J. M. Coin, George Davey Smith, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Kirsi Sipilä

Affiliations Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Stomatognathic Physiology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland

Raija Lähdesmäki

Affiliations Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, Department of Oral Development and Orthodontics, Institute of Dentistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Iona Y. Millwood

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Marika Kaakinen

Affiliations Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Gopalakrishnan Netuveli

Affiliations Economic and Social Research Council International Centre for Life Course Studies in Society and Health, London, United Kingdom, Department of Primary Care and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

David Blane

Affiliations Economic and Social Research Council International Centre for Life Course Studies in Society and Health, London, United Kingdom, Department of Primary Care and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

Pimphen Charoen

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Ulla Sovio

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Anneli Pouta

Affiliation Department of Lifecourse and Services, National Institute of Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

Nelson Freimer

Affiliations Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America, The Jane and Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, California, United States of America, Department of Psychiatry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Anna-Liisa Hartikainen

Affiliation Department of Clinical Sciences/Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Jaana Laitinen

Affiliation Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland

Sarianna Vaara

Affiliation Department of Lifecourse and Services, National Institute of Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

Beate Glaser

Affiliation Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Peter Crawford

Affiliation Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Nicholas J. Timpson

Affiliation Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Susan M. Ring

Affiliation Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Guohong Deng

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Weihua Zhang

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Mark I. McCarthy

Affiliations Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM), University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom

Panos Deloukas

Affiliation Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Welcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Leena Peltonen

Affiliations Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Welcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Institute of Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, Nordic EMBL Partnership for Molecular Medicine, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit, Helsinki, Finland

Paul Elliott

Contributed equally to this work with: Demetris Pillas, Clive J. Hoggart, David M. Evans, Paul F. O'Reilly, Paul Elliott, Lachlan J. M. Coin, George Davey Smith, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Medical Research Council–Health Protection Agency Centre in Environment and Health, London, United Kingdom

Lachlan J. M. Coin

Contributed equally to this work with: Demetris Pillas, Clive J. Hoggart, David M. Evans, Paul F. O'Reilly, Paul Elliott, Lachlan J. M. Coin, George Davey Smith, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

George Davey Smith

Contributed equally to this work with: Demetris Pillas, Clive J. Hoggart, David M. Evans, Paul F. O'Reilly, Paul Elliott, Lachlan J. M. Coin, George Davey Smith, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Affiliation Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Contributed equally to this work with: Demetris Pillas, Clive J. Hoggart, David M. Evans, Paul F. O'Reilly, Paul Elliott, Lachlan J. M. Coin, George Davey Smith, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

m.jarvelin@imperial.ac.uk

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Department of Lifecourse and Services, National Institute of Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DP MRJ. Analyzed the data: DP CJH DME PC LJMC. Wrote the paper: DP CJH DME PFO KS RL IYM MK GN DB US AP NF ALH JL SV BG PC NJT SMR GD WZ MIM PD LP PE LJMC GDS MRJ.