About the Authors

Toby Andrew

Contributed equally to this work with: Toby Andrew, Nikolas Maniatis

toby.andrew@kcl.ac.uk

Affiliation Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Nikolas Maniatis

Contributed equally to this work with: Toby Andrew, Nikolas Maniatis

Affiliation Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Francis Carbonaro

Affiliation Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom

S. H. Melissa Liew

Affiliation Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Winston Lau

Affiliation Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Tim D. Spector

Affiliation Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Christopher J. Hammond

Affiliations Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom, West Kent Eye Centre, Bromley Hospitals NHS Trust, Orpington, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TA NM. Performed the experiments: TA NM. Analyzed the data: TA NM WL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TA NM FC SHML WL TDS CJH. Wrote the paper: TA NM CJH.