About the Authors

Shuang Yang

Contributed equally to this work with: Shuang Yang, J. Roman Arguello

Affiliations Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Max Planck Junior Research Group, Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China , Graduate School of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing, China

J. Roman Arguello

Contributed equally to this work with: Shuang Yang, J. Roman Arguello

Affiliation Committee on Evolutionary Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Xin Li

Affiliations Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Max Planck Junior Research Group, Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China , Graduate School of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing, China

Yun Ding

Affiliations Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Max Planck Junior Research Group, Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China , Graduate School of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing, China

Qi Zhou

Affiliations Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Max Planck Junior Research Group, Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China , Graduate School of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing, China

Ying Chen

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Yue Zhang

Affiliation Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Max Planck Junior Research Group, Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China

Ruoping Zhao

Affiliation Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Max Planck Junior Research Group, Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China

Frédéric Brunet

¤ Current address: Ingénieur de Recherche en Bioinformatique Equipe Génomique Evolutive des Vertébrés, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon (IGFL)—Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon (ENSL) 46, Lyon, France

Affiliation Committee on Evolutionary Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Lixin Peng

Affiliation Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Max Planck Junior Research Group, Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China

Manyuan Long

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mlong@uchicago.edu (ML); wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn (WW)

Affiliations Committee on Evolutionary Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America , Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Wen Wang

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mlong@uchicago.edu (ML); wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn (WW)

Affiliation Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Max Planck Junior Research Group, Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ML and WW conceived and designed the experiments. SY, JRA, ML, and WW analyzed data. SY, XL, YD, QZ, YC, YZ, RZ, FB, LP, and WW performed molecular and cytological experiments. JRA conducted computer simulation. SY, JRA, ML, and WW wrote the paper.