About the Authors

E. Nancy Miller

Contributed equally to this work with: E. Nancy Miller, Manal Fadl

Affiliation Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Manal Fadl

Contributed equally to this work with: E. Nancy Miller, Manal Fadl

Affiliations Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom , Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Hiba S Mohamed

Affiliations Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom , Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Abier Elzein

Affiliation Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Sarra E Jamieson

Affiliation Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Heather J Cordell

¤ Current address: Institute of Human Genetics, University of Newcastle, International Centre for Life, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Affiliation Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Christopher S Peacock

Affiliation Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Michaela Fakiola

Affiliation Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Madhuri Raju

Affiliation Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Eltahir A Khalil

Affiliation Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Ahmed Elhassan

Affiliation Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Ahmed M Musa

Affiliation Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Muntaser E Ibrahim

Affiliation Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Jenefer M Blackwell

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jennie.blackwell@cimr.cam.ac.uk

Affiliation Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

E. N. Miller helped supervise the study in the laboratory, participated in the fieldwork, supervised the data entry and looked after the database, and carried out most of the genetic statistical analysis. M. Fadl, H. S. Mohamed, and A. Elzein assisted with the field work and preparation of DNA, and carried out the genotyping for the primary genome scan. M. Fadl, M. Fakiola, and M. Raju carried out the genotyping for the refined mapping. S. E. Jamieson helped supervise the study in the laboratory. H. J. Cordell advised on genetic statistical analysis, and carried out the parent-of-origin analyses and locus-specific λS calculations. C. S. Peacock assisted with field work and laboratory supervision. E. A. Khalil, A. M. Musa, and A. Elzein carried out the clinical evaluation of patients in the field. A. Elhassan established the field study site, and continues to mentor ongoing research at the Institute for Endemic Diseases and in the field. M. E. Ibrahim conceived the study, supervised the research in Sudan, and organized and participated in the field work. J. M. Blackwell conceived the study, participated in the field work, supervised the research, and prepared the manuscript. A. Elhassan is the longtime mentor for all authors of this study.