About the Authors

Graham F Hatfull

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: gfh@pitt.edu

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Marisa L Pedulla

Current address: Biology Department, Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Butte, Montana, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Deborah Jacobs-Sera

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Pauline M Cichon

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Amy Foley

Affiliation Hampton High School, Allison Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Michael E Ford

Current address: J. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Rebecca M Gonda

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Jennifer M Houtz

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Andrew J Hryckowian

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Vanessa A Kelchner

Current address: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Pennington, New Jersey, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Swathi Namburi

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Kostandin V Pajcini

Current address: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Mark G Popovich

Affiliation Lincoln High School, Elwood City, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Donald T Schleicher

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Brian Z Simanek

Current address: Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Williams College, Bronfman Science Center, Williamstown, Massachusetts, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Alexis L Smith

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Gina M Zdanowicz

Current address: Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Vanaja Kumar

Affiliation Tuberculosis Research Center, ICMR, Chetpet, Chennai, India

Craig L Peebles

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

William R Jacobs Jr.

Affiliations Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America , Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America

Jeffrey G Lawrence

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Roger W Hendrix

Affiliations Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America , Pittsburgh Bacteriophage Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

GFH, WRJ, JGL, and RWH conceived and designed the experiments. MLP, PMC, AF, MEF, RMG, JMH, AJH, VAK, SN, KVP, MGP, DTS, BZS, ALS, and GMZ performed the experiments. GFH, MLP, DJS, PMC, AF, MEF, RMG, JMH, AJH, VAK, SN, KVP, MGP, DTS, BZS, ALS, GMZ, VK, CLP, JGL, and RWH analyzed the data. PMC, AF, RMG, JMH, AJH, VAK, SN, KVP, MGP, DTS, BZS, ALS, GMZ, VK, and JGL contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. GFH, MLP, DJS, CLP, WRJ, JGL, and RWH wrote the paper.