About the Authors

Xiaohua Shen

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Ronald E Ellis

Affiliation Department of Molecular Biology, The UMDNJ School of Osteopathic Medicine, Stratford, New Jersey, United States of America

Kenjiro Sakaki

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Randal J Kaufman

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: kaufmanr@umich.edu

Affiliation Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

XS, REE, and RJK conceived and designed the experiments. XS performed the experiments. KS provided technical assistance on quantitative RT-PCR. XS and RJK analyzed the data. XS, REE, and RJK wrote the paper.