About the Authors

E. Camilla Forsberg

Contributed equally to this work with: E. Camilla Forsberg, Susan S Prohaska

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: cforsber@stanford.edu

Affiliation Departments of Pathology and Developmental Biology, Institute of Cancer and Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, California, United States of America

Susan S Prohaska

Contributed equally to this work with: E. Camilla Forsberg, Susan S Prohaska

Affiliation Departments of Pathology and Developmental Biology, Institute of Cancer and Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, California, United States of America

Sol Katzman

Affiliation Biomolecular Engineering, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

Garrett C Heffner

Affiliation Departments of Pathology and Developmental Biology, Institute of Cancer and Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, California, United States of America

Josh M Stuart

Affiliation Biomolecular Engineering, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

Irving L Weissman

Affiliation Departments of Pathology and Developmental Biology, Institute of Cancer and Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

As a former advisory board member of Amgen, ILW owns significant Amgen stock. He also cofounded and consulted for Systemix; cofounded Cellerant Therapeutics, a spin-off from Systemix Novartis to transplant human HSC; and is a cofounder and a director of the company Stem Cells, which is involved in the isolation and study of human central nervous system stem cells, liver-repopulating cells, and pancreatic islet/progenitor cells.

Author Contributions

ECF, SSP, and ILW conceived and designed the experiments. ECF, SSP and GCH performed the experiments. All authors analyzed the data. SK and JMS contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. ECF wrote the paper.