Estimating the probabilities of rare arrhythmic events in multiscale computational models of cardiac cells and tissue
(a) Variability in DAD timing and amplitude. Inset shows the area under the curve above resting potential of each DAD. Strong correlations were observed between Vmax and the maxima of both the spontaneous [Ca2+]i transient (b) and the RyR Ca2+ release flux (c). (d) Volume renderings of Ca2+ wave dynamics at three time points in each simulation. Approximate locations of the nucleation sites are circled in white. Nnuc was higher in simulations i and ii which had greater DAD amplitude. All simulations initialized with [Na+]i = 10 mM.