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Estimating the probabilities of rare arrhythmic events in multiscale computational models of cardiac cells and tissue

Fig 4

Elevating SR Ca2+ load accelerated Ca2+ wave formation and increased DAD amplitude.

(a) DADs resulting from initializing SR Ca2+ load to five different values as shown in (b). (c) Volume renderings of Ca2+ in the simulations at three time points illustrating the greater spontaneous Ca2+ wave activity at higher SR Ca2+ loads. The number of Ca2+ wave nucleation sites (Nnuc) is tabulated for each simulation. All simulations initialized with [Na+]i = 10 mM.

Fig 4