Patient-specific modeling of individual sickle cell behavior under transient hypoxia
(a) Simulations of time sequence of RBCs flowing through capillary-inspired microchannel under transient hypoxia. The RBCs flow from right to left. Arrows indicate the trapped sickle cells at the microgates. (b) A representative profile of the sickled fraction under transient hypoxia in DPD simulation. In this case, the sickled fraction is changed from 0.0% to 20.2% by lowering the O2 concentration from 20% (Oxy state) to less than 5% (DeOxy state). (c) Representative velocity profiles of individual sickle cells obtained through experimental measurement (red circles) and numerical simulations (black squares).