Food Web Assembly Rules for Generalized Lotka-Volterra Equations
a, Bahia Falsa free-living food web, with blue and red matrix elements for predator respectively prey dependency. Trophic levels indicated by gray and black bars, whereas color coding along the left and upper edge labels chain length of free-living species (increase from red to blue shades). b, Niche model simulation of the Bahia Falsa free-living food web. c, Cascade model simulation of the Bahia Falsa free-living food web. d, As (a) but with parasites (“Par”) and with colors for free-living species carried over from (a). Remaining species are parasites. e, As (d) but additionally including symmetric concomitant links (“ParCon sym”). f, Lack of niches (d) for seven empirical food webs . Labels mark the sub-webs of free-living species (“Free“), including also parasite links (”Par“), asymmetric (”ParCon asym“) and several symmetric concomitant links (”ParCon sym“). Dashed line connects averages in these categories. Rank deficiencies for free living (df), free-living and parasite species (df+p) as well as additional concomitant links (dc,sym) marked in (a), (d), and (e), respectively. (Analysis details and abbreviations: see Methods).