From the Phenomenology to the Mechanisms of Consciousness: Integrated Information Theory 3.0
CI is quantified by measuring the distance in concept space between C, the constellation of concepts generated by a set of elements, and , the unconstrained past and future repertoire, which can be termed the “null” concept (in the absence of a mechanism, every state is equally likely). This can be done using an extended version of the earth mover's distance (EMD) that corresponds to the sum of the standard EMD for distributions between the cause-effect repertoires of all concepts and , weighted by their values. (A) Therefore, a system with many different elementary and higher order concepts has high CI, as shown here for the candidate set ABC. (B) By contrast, a system comprised of a single mechanism can only have one concept and thus has low CI.