An Integrated Computational/Experimental Model of Lymphoma Growth
(A) Functional relationships involving cell-scale parameters such as proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Caspase-3), and hypoxia (HIF-1α) are defined based on experimental observations, e.g., from immunohistochemistry the density of viable tissue as a function of vascularization is shown in the third panel (red: highest density; yellow: lowest; blue: vessels). These functional relationships as well as parameter values measured experimentally are then used as input to the model to create simulations of lymphoma growth. A sample simulated tumor cross-section showing vascularized viable tissue (highest density in red, lowest in yellow, with vessel cross-sections as small blue dots) is shown at the far right. (B) Lymphoma observations regarding size, morphology, and vasculature from macroscopic imaging of an inguinal lymph node in live mice provide part of the tumor-scale information to validate the model simulations. Note the pre-existing vasculature in the lymph node (in the center of each frame) from which oxygen and nutrients are supplied to the tissue. For comparison, a control group of lymph nodes in animals without tumors is also shown.