Experimental Studies and Dynamics Modeling Analysis of the Swimming and Diving of Whirligig Beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)
(A) Top-down view of the body showing key parameters for swimming. (B&C) Side view of the body on the surface of water (indicated by blue line) showing both the maximum and minimum position of the legs during a leg beat when diving. In all of the above diagrams, the hind legs are indicated by the subscript h, while the middle legs are indicated by the subscript m. Using this notation, the length of the hind legs is Lh, etc. The direction of motion of the beetle is indicated by an arrow showing the forward velocity (Uy). The dashed line in B&C indicates the submerged portion of the beetle. All other parameters designations are listed in Tables 1–3.