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Microbial Co-occurrence Relationships in the Human Microbiome

Figure 2

Significant co-occurrence and co-exclusion relationships among the abundances of clades in the human microbiome.

A global microbial interaction network capturing 1,949 associations among 452 clades at or above the order level in the human microbiome, reduced for visualization from the complete network in Figure S1. Each node represents a bacterial order, summarizing one or more genus-level phylotypes and family-level taxonomic groups. These are colored by body site, and each edge represents a significant co-occurrence/co-exclusion relationship. Edge width is proportional to the significance of supporting evidence, and color indicates the sign of the association (red negative, green positive). Self-loops indicate associations among phylotypes within an order; for a full network of all phylotypes and clades, see Figure S1. A high degree of modularity is apparent within body areas (skin, urogenital tract, oral cavity, gut, and airways) and within individual body sites, with most communities forming distinct niches across which few microbial associations occur.

Figure 2