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Reconstruction of Genome-Scale Active Metabolic Networks for 69 Human Cell Types and 16 Cancer Types Using INIT

Figure 2

Illustration of the principles of the INIT algorithm.

The hierarchical structure of GEMs is characterized by its gene-transcript-protein-reaction (GTPR) associations. In GEMs, each metabolic reaction is associated to one or more enzymes, which in turn are associated to transcripts and genes. Depending on the evidence for presence/absence of a given enzyme/gene in a cell type, a score can be calculated for the reaction(s) catalyzed by that enzyme. The HPA evidence scores are illustrated as red, light, medium and dark green representing negative, weak, moderate and strong evidence, respectively. The transcriptome evidence scores (GeneX), which are illustrated as red, light, medium, and dark blue representing low, medium and high expression, respectively. No evidence is present as white object. For some metabolites (yellow filled circle), metabolomic data are available to prove that they are present in the considered cell type. The aim of the algorithm is to find a sub-network in which the involved genes/proteins have strong evidence supporting their presence in the cell type under consideration. This is done by maximizing the sum of evidence scores. All the included reactions should be able to carry a flux and all the metabolites observed experimentally should be synthesized from precursors that the cell is known to take up. The bold lines represent the resulting network after optimization.

Figure 2