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Adhesion Failures Determine the Pattern of Choroidal Neovascularization in the Eye: A Computer Simulation Study

Figure 19

Snapshots of a simulation replica exhibiting stable Type 3 CNV (S33 CNV).

3D and 2D visualization of a simulation replica developing S33 CNV in one simulated year (RRl = 1, RRp = 1, RBl = 2, RBp = 2, ROl = 3) (adhesion scenario ID: 53, simulation ID: 917). Snapshots of the simulation at months 1 (A), 2 (B), 6 (C) and 12 (D). (A2-D2) Cross-sections of (A1-D1). All cross-section planes in (A1-D1) panels defined by the two thick black lines in A1. (A) Stalk cells invade the sub-RPE space through a hole in BrM (A1-2, black outline arrows) that the tip cell form during the first 24 hours of the simulation. These stalk cells then form a fully developed sub-RPE capillary network. (A2) Only a few stalk cells (black arrow, A1-2) reach the sub-retinal space during the first month. (B1, C1) The sub-retinal and sub-RPE capillary networks do not grow significantly. (C2) A capillary (black arrows), enveloped by a bilayer of RPE cells, connects the sub-retinal space to the CC via the hole in BrM (D) Stalk cells disrupt the RPE, forming small holes in the RPE (D2, black arrow). The stalk cells at the location of the hole in the RPE (D2, black arrow) contact both the POSs and BrM. The black outline arrow shows sub-retinal stalk cells. Cell type colors: 1) POS and PIS: light purple, 2) RPE: brown, 3) Stalk cells: green, 4) Vascular cells (CC): red, 5) BrM: light blue. Scale bar ∼50 µm. We have rendered the boundaries of individual cells in A1-D1 as semi-transparent membranes. POS, PIS and RPE cells are rendered more transparent to show the underlying structures. See also Video S6.

Figure 19

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002440.g019