Adhesion Failures Determine the Pattern of Choroidal Neovascularization in the Eye: A Computer Simulation Study
3D visualization of a simulation replica exhibiting T12 CNV translocation during one simulated year (RRl = 3, RRp = 3, RBl = 1, RBp = 1, ROl = 1) (adhesion scenario ID: 93, simulation ID: 849). Snapshots of the simulation at months 3 (A), 5 (B), 9 (C) and 12 (D). (A) Stalk cells (solid black arrow) invade the sub-RPE space through a hole in BrM (black outline arrow) and form a capillary network. All stalk cells remain in the sub-RPE space during the first 3 months. A few vascular cells fill the hole in BrM (black outline arrow) to connect CNV capillaries to the CC (red outline arrow). Brown outline arrow shows an RPE cell. (B) Half of the stalk cells (black outline arrow) have crossed the RPE and transmigrated into the sub-retinal space, forming a new capillary network in the sub-retinal space. The black arrow shows a stalk cell in the sub-RPE space. (C) Most stalk cells have transmigrated into the sub-retinal space and the RPE has completely reattached to BrM (Figure 9E, dark green line). A few vascular cells of the CC have transmigrated into the sub-retinal space (red outline arrow) (D) The sub-retinal capillary network has fewer stalk cells than (C) since stalk cells that migrate into the retina far from the RPE die. Cell type colors: 1) POS and PIS: light purple, 2) RPE: brown, 3) Stalk cells: green (stalk cells in the sub-retinal space have lighter shading), 4) Vascular cells (CC): red, 5) BrM: light blue. Scale bar ∼50 µm. We have rendered the boundaries of individual cells as semi-transparent membranes. POS, PIS and RPE cells are more transparent to show the underlying structures. See also Video S2.