About the Authors

Xuejin Li

Affiliation Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

E. Du

Affiliations Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Ocean and Mechanical Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, United States of America

Ming Dao

mingdao@mit.edu (MD); George_Karniadakis@brown.edu (GEK)

Affiliation Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Subra Suresh

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Engineering, Computational Biology Department, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

George Em Karniadakis

mingdao@mit.edu (MD); George_Karniadakis@brown.edu (GEK)

Affiliation Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: XL ED MD SS GEK. Formal analysis: XL ED MD SS GEK. Investigation: ED. Methodology: XL. Resources: MD SS GEK. Supervision: MD SS GEK. Validation: XL ED. Visualization: XL. Writing – original draft: XL ED MD SS GEK. Writing – review & editing: XL ED MD SS GEK.