About the Authors

Shao-shan Carol Huang

Address Current address: Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory and Genomic Analysis Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Affiliations PhD Program in Computational and Systems Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

David C. Clarke

Affiliations Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Center for Cellular Decision Processes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sara J. C. Gosline

Affiliation Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Adam Labadorf

Affiliation Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Candace R. Chouinard

Affiliation Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

William Gordon

Address Current address: Departments of Medicine and Biological Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.

Affiliation Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Douglas A. Lauffenburger

Affiliations Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Center for Cellular Decision Processes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Ernest Fraenkel

fraenkel-admin@mit.edu

Affiliations Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SSCH EF. Performed the experiments: SSCH CRC WG. Analyzed the data: SSCH DCC SJCG EF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AL DAL. Wrote the paper: SSCH EF.