About the Authors

James P. Crutchfield


Affiliation Complexity Sciences Center, Physics Department, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Sean Whalen

Affiliation Computer Science Department, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JPC SW. Performed the experiments: JPC SW. Analyzed the data: JPC SW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JPC SW. Wrote the paper: JPC SW.