About the Authors

Ismail Adeniran

Affiliation Biological Physics Group, School of Physics & Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Mark J. McPate

Address Current address: Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Horsham, West Sussex, United Kingdom

Affiliation Department of Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, School of Medical Sciences, Bristol, United Kingdom

Harry J. Witchel

Address Current address: Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, United Kingdom

Affiliation Department of Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, School of Medical Sciences, Bristol, United Kingdom

Jules C. Hancox

henggui.zhang@manchester.ac.uk (HZ); jules.hancox@bristol.ac.uk (JCH)

Affiliation Department of Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, School of Medical Sciences, Bristol, United Kingdom

Henggui Zhang

henggui.zhang@manchester.ac.uk (HZ); jules.hancox@bristol.ac.uk (JCH)

Affiliation Biological Physics Group, School of Physics & Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: HZ JCH. Performed the experiments: IA. Analyzed the data: IA HZ JCH. Wrote the paper: IA HZ JCH. In vitro hERG data used to validate WT and mutant IKr formulations: MJM HJW.